Use este identificador para citar ou linkar para este item: http://repositorio.ufes.br/handle/10/10553
Título: Tecnologias associadas à ureia: perdas de N NH3 sob efeito de temperatura e umidade do solo
Autor(es): Siman, Felipe Cunha
Orientador: Andrade, Felipe Vaz
Coorientador: Passos, Renato Ribeiro
Data do documento: 13-Jul-2018
Editor: Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo
Citação: SIMAN, Felipe Cunha, Tecnologias associadas à ureia : perdas de N NH3 sob efeito de temperatura e umidade do solo. 2018. 81 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Produção Vegetal) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Produção Vegetal, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Alegre, 2018.
Resumo: A utilização de fertilizantes nitrogenados em larga escala contribui com o aumento das temperaturas globais em função da emissão de gases de efeito estufa. O setor agrícola é o principal emissor de óxido nitroso (94 %) e o responsável por 75 % das emissões de gás carbônico, além de perdas de 50 % de nitrogênio por volatilização de amônia. O fertilizante nitrogenado mais aplicado no Brasil, a uréia, representa grandes perdas de nitrogênio e essas são afetadas pela umidade, temperatura, trocas gasosas, textura do solo e atividade da enzima uréase. A umidade do solo é o parâmetro mais importante para avaliar as emissões de gases do solo, pois controla a atividade microbiana e todos os processos relacionados. Já o acréscimo de temperatura influencia a taxa de hidrólise da uréia, potencializando as emissões. Alternativas para aumentar a eficiência de uso do N pelas culturas estão relacionadas ao uso de fertilizantes com tecnologia associada, através de mecanismos como encapsulamento, inibidores de urease e nitrificação e, portanto, propõe-se neste trabalho, avaliar a volatilização de amônia e emissão de N2O e CO2 utilizando três fontes nitrogenadas, 2 potenciais mátricos (-100 e -50 kpa) e três temperaturas (25, 35 e 40° C).
The use of technologies associated with urea granules has been developed with the aim of minimizing N losses in the soil-plant-atmosphere system and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization through the use of stabilized fertilizers and gradual release. The objective of this experiment was to: (a) evaluate three temperature conditions (25, 35 and 45 ° C) in N losses through NH3 volatilization, CO2 gas emissions and soil urease enzyme activity; (b) and evaluate the potential of N losses in conventional urea fertilizers and associated technology (urea + NBPT, polymer and sulfur coated urea). This study was divided in two experiments conducted in a laboratory with controlled environment. The first experiment was arranged in subdivided plots, the main plot being characterized by three soil temperatures (25, 35 and 45 °C, ± 2 ° C), while three sources of nitrogen fertilizers characterized the subplots, being: conventional urea (UC), urea + NBPT (UNBPT) and polymer and sulfur coated urea (UPS). For the evaluation of volatilized NH3, accumulated CO2 emission, CO2 flow and urease enzyme activity, a static free semi-open collecting chamber (SFSO) was used. The experiment lasted 23 days and the evaluations were performed at 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th and 23th days after the start of the experiment. The objective of the second experiment was to evaluate the volatilization of NH3 in conventional urea fertilizers and with associated technology under: (a) 3 temperature conditions (25, 35 and 45 °C); (b) and 3 soil moisture managements (1st, 3rd and 6th day). The treatments were arranged in subdivided plots, the main plot being characterized by the three temperatures (25, 35 e 45 °C) and the three fertilizer sources (UC, UNBPT and UPS) and the three soil moisture managements (1st, 3rd and 6th day) characterized the subplots. The initial water matric potential used was -100 kPa and on the days of evaluation, water was added until the potential of -50 kPa. The experiment was conducted using a chamber (SFSO) to capture the NH3 for a period of 23 days with the collection and exchange of foams performed at 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th and vii 23th days after the start of the experiment. In general, for both experiments the increasing order of N-NH3 volatilization was: UPS <UNBPT <UC, for the temperature of 45 °C in relation to the others. The elevation of the water matric potential from -100 to -50 kPa in the first soil moisture management reduced the volatilization of NH3 to the UC and UNBPT, however, the UPS had no relation between volatilization of NH3 and soil moisture management. UC fertilizer has the shortest half-life of NH3 losses in the soil, while UNBPT and UPS fertilizers have double and three times more of this time, respectively, in relation to UC.
URI: http://repositorio.ufes.br/handle/10/10553
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